发布日期:2020-02-24 字号设置:【    
AAAA (美国广告代理商协会)  AAAA (American Associations of Advertising Agencies)
A trade association of U.S. advertising agencies.
傍晚时段(黄金段最初的时段)  Early fringe
In television, a daypart in late afternoon immediately prior to the airing of local news programs.
边缘时间  Fringe
In television, dayparts just before prime time (early fringe) and after the late news (late fringe).
被动观众  Passive audience
A term given to viewers who are unselective about the content they watch. Passive audiences are thought to watch TV out of habit tuning to almost anything if a preferred show is unavailable.
标准误差  Standard error
The standard deviation of a sampling distribution. It is the statistic used to make statements about the accuracy of estimates based on sample information.
测量误差  Measurement error
Systematic bias or inaccuracy attributable to measurement procedures
测量仪  Meter
A measure of central tendency defined as that point in a distribution where half the cases have higher values and half have lower values.
抽样框  Simple frame
A list of some population from which a probability sample is actually drawn.
抽样误差  Sampling error
Inaccuracies in survey data attributable to “the luck of the draw" in creating a probability sample.
抽样率  Sampling rate
The ratio of sample size to population size.
代码  Codes
The numbers or letters used to represent responses in a survey instrument like a diary. Coding the responses allows computers to manipulate the data.
代表性抽样  Cross-sectional
A type of survey design in which one sample is drawn from the population at a point in time.
独家累计受众  Exclusive cume audience
The size of the unduplicated audience that listens exclusively to one station within some specified period.
吊床效应  Hammocking
A television programming strategy in which an unproven or weak show is scheduled between two popular programs in hopes that viewers will stay tuned, thereby enhancing the rating of the middle program.
惰性  Inertia
A description of audience behavior that implies viewers are unlikely to change channels unless Provoked by very unappealing programming.
导入节目  Lead-in
The program that immediately precedes another on the same channel. The size and composition of a lead-in audience is an important determinant of a program's rating.
多台电视家庭  Multiset household
A television household with more than one working television set.
定位访问  Placement interview
An initial interview to secure the willingness of the respondent to keep a diary or receive a meter.
电视个人开机率  PUT (Person Using Television)
A term describing the total size of the television audience, in persons, at any time.
定性视听率  Qualitative ratings
Numerical summaries of the audience that not only describe how many watched or listened, but their reactions including enjoyment interest, attentiveness, and information gained.
定性调查  Qualitative research
Any systematic investigation of the audience that does not depend on measurement and quantification. Examples include focus groups and participant observation. Sometimes used to describe any nonratings research, even if quantification is involved, as in "qualitative ratings."
定额抽样  Quota sample
A type of nonprobability sample in which categories of respondents called quotas (e.g., males), are filled by interviewing respondents who are convenient.
到达  Reach
The number of unduplicated persons or households included in the audience of a station or a commercial campaign over some specified period. Sometimes expressed as a percentage of the market population.
断面调查  Sweep
In television, a 4-week period during which ratings companies are collecting the audience information necessary to produce local market reports.
电话回忆访问法  Telephone recall
A type of survey in which a telephone interviewer asks the respondent what they listened to or watched in the recent past, often the preceding day.

电视家庭  Television household (TVHH)

A common unit of analysis in ratings research, it is any household equipped with a working television set, excluding group quarters. 

方便抽样  Convenience sample
A nonprobability sample, sometimes called an accidental sample, used because respondents are readily available or convenient.
反向节目编排  Counterprogramming
A programming strategy in which a station or network schedules material appealing to an audience other than the competition. Independents often counterprogram local news with entertainment.
覆盖率  Coverage
The potential audience for a given station or network, defined by the size of the population reached, or covered, by the signal.
访问  Interview
A method of collecting data through oral questioning of a respondent, either in person, or over the telephone.
非随机抽样  Nonprobability sample
A kind of sample in which every member of the population does not have a known probability of selection into the sample.
付费有线电视  Paycable
The programming services provided by a cable system for a monthly fee above and beyond that required for basic cable. Paycable may include anyone of several premium services like HBO, showtime, or The Disney Channel.
份额  Share
In its simplest form, the percentage of persons or households tuned to a station or program out of all those using the medium at that time.
分层抽样  Stratified sample
A type of probability sample in which the population is organized into homogeneous subsets or strata, after which a predetermined number of respondents is randomly selected for each strata. Stratified sampling can reduce the sampling error associated with simple random samples.
非重叠受众  Unduplicated audience
The number of different persons or households in an audience over a specified period.
分析单位  Unit of analysis
The element or entity about which a researcher collects information. In ratings, the unit of analysis is usually a person or household.
广告代理  A trade association of U.S. advertising agencies.
A company that prepares and places advertising for its clients Agencies typically have media departments that specialize in planning, buying, and evaluating advertising time.
广播电视网  Network
An organization that acquires or produces programming and distributes that programming, usually with national or regional advertising, to affiliated stations or cable systems.
隔夜报告  Overnights
The label given to ratings, based on meters, that are available to clients the day after broadcast.
概率抽样  Probability sample
A kind of sample in which every member of the population has an equal or known chance of being selected into the sample. Sometimes called random samples, probability samples allow statistical inferences about the accuracy of sample estimates.
户外收听  Away from home listening
Estimate of radio listening that occurs outside the home. Such listening usually takes place in a car or workplace.
回访  Callback
The practice in attempting to interview someone in a survey sample who was not contacted or interviewed on an earlier try. The number of call back attempts is an important determinant of response rates and nonresponse error.
黄金时间  Prime time
指从19:00-23:00 的电视节目时段。鉴于FCC的规定,广播电视网只可以在20:00-23:00的时段内向附属台加入节目。
A television daypart from 7p.m. to 11p.m.EST. Due to FCCeregulations, broadcast networks typically feed programming only from 8p.m.to llp.m.EST.
回复者  Respondent
A sample member who provides information in response to questions.
回复误差  Response error
Inaccuracies in survey data attributable to the quality of responses, including lying, forgetting, or misinterpreting question.
基本有线电视  Basic cable
The programming services provided by a cable system for the lowest of its monthly charges. These services typically include local television signals, advertiser-supported cable networks, and local access.
节目组合  Block programming
The practice of scheduling similar programs in sequence to promote audience flow.
集体宿舍  Group quarters
Dormitories, barracks, nursing homes, prisons, and other living arrangements that do not qualify as households, and are, therefore, not measured by ratings companies.
家庭  Household
An identifiable housing unit, such as an apartment or house, occupied by one or more persons.
家庭开机率  HUT (Households Using Television)
A term describing the total size of the audience, in households, at anyone time. Expressed as either the projected audience size, or as a percent of the total number of households.
节目类型  Program type
A category of programming usually based on similarities in program content.
简单随机抽样  Simple random sample
A one-stage probability sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of selection.
节目拆开编排法  Stripped programming
A programming practice in which television shows am scheduled at the same time on 5 consecutive weekdays. Stations often strip syndicated programs.
加权样本  Weighted in-tab
The number of individuals in different demographic groups who would have provided usable information if response rates were equivalent. See sample weighting.
加权  Weighting
The process of assigning mathematical weights in an attempt to correct over or underrepresentation of some groups in the unweighted in-tab sample. See sample weighting.
可得受众  Available audience
The number of people who are, realistically, in a position to use a medium at any point in time. It is often operationally deaned as those actually using the medium (i.e., PUT or PUR levels).
可以接受的节目  LOP (least objectionable program)
Paul Klein 提出的电视观众行为理论。它指出人们收看电视的原因与节目内容无关,人们会选择收看可以接受的(不厌恶的)节目。
A popular theory of television audience behavior attributed to Paul Klein, that argues people primarily watch TV for reasons unrelated to content, and they choose the least objectionable programs.
可推及的样本  Projectable
A quality describing a sample designed in such a way that audience projections may be made.
累计  Cume
Short for cumulative audience, it is the size of the unduplicated audience for a station over a specified period. When the cume is expressed as percent of the market population it is referred to as cume rating.
累计重叠  Cume duplication
The percentage of a station's cume audience that also listened to another station, within some specified period.
录像机  VCR (Video-Cassette Recorder)
An appliance used for recording and playing videocassette tapes, now in a majority of U.S. households. 
点成本  CPP (Cost Per Point)
A measure of how much it costs to buy the audience represented by one rating point. The size of that audience, and therefore its cost, varies with the size of the market population on which the rating is based.
每千人(户)成本  CPM (Cost Per Thousand)
用于测量一个广告送达的1000名受众的成本。CPM 常被用来比较不同广告载体的价格/效益。
A measure of how much it costs to buy 1OOO audience members delivered by an ad. CPMs are commonly used to compare the cost efficiency of different advertising vehicles.
每周净循环  Net weekly circulation
The cume or unduplicated audience using a station or network in a week.
目标受众  Target audience
Any well-defined subset of the total audience that an advertiser wants to reach with a commercial campaign or a station wants to reach with a particular kind of programming.
某时期平均值  Time period averages
The size of a broadcast audience at an average point in time, within some specified period.
每个收视家庭的观众  VPVH (Viewers Per Viewing Household)
The estimated number of people, usually by demographic category, in each household tuned to a particular source.
平均15分钟间隔(AQH)  AQH (Average Quarter Hour)
用于报告特定时段内平均受众量的标准时间单位。(如:AQH 视听率,AQH 受众份额)。
The standard unit of time for reporting average audience estimates(e.g.,AQH rating, AQH share)within specified dayparts.
平均受众视听率  Average audience rating
The rating of a station or program at an average point in time within some specified period of time. Metered data, for example, allow reports of audience size in an average minute during a television program.
频道忠诚度  Channel loyalty
A common phenomenon of aggregate audience behavior in which the audience for one program tends to be disproportionately represented in the audience for other programs on the same channel.
频次  Frequency
In advertising, the average number of times that an individual is exposed to a particular advertising message.
频繁更换频道  Grazing
The term describing the tendency of viewers to frequently change channels, a behavior that is presumably facilitated by remote control.
群抽样  Cluster sample
A type of probability sample in which aggregations of sampling units, called clusters, are sampled at some stage in the process.
巧合  Coincidental
A type of telephone survey in which interviewers ask respondents what they are watching or listening to at the time of the call. Coincidentals, based on probability samples, often set the standard against which other ratings methods are judged.
趋势分析  Trend analysis
A type of longitudinal survey design in which results from repeated independent samplings are compared over time.
人口普查  Census
A Study in which every member of a population is interviewed or measured.
人口统计因素  Demographics
A category of variables often used to describe the composition of audiences. Common demographics include age, gender, education, occupation and income.
日记  Diary
A paper booklet, distributed by ratings companies, in which audience members are asked to record their television or radio use, usually for one week. The diary can be for an entire household (television) or for an individual (radio).
人员测量仪  Peoplemeter
A device that electronically records the on-off and channel tuning condition of a TV set and is capable of identifying viewers. If viewers must enter that information by button pressing, the meter is caned active; if the meter requires no effort from viewers, it is called passive.
人口  Population
The total number of persons or households from which a sample is drawn. Membership in a population must be clearly defined, often by the geographic area in which a person lives.
受众流动  Audience flow
The extent to which audiences persist from one program or time period to the next. See audience duplication, inheritance effects.
受众重叠  Audience duplication
一种累计受众测量。 显示了一个节目或媒介的受众成为另一个节目或媒介受众的程度。
A cumulative measure of the audience that describes the extent to which audience members for one program or station are also in the audience of another program or station.
受众细分  Audience fragmentation
是一种媒介的受众分散在该媒介的众多节目中的现象。如: 有线电视进一步细分了电视观众,使个频道的观众份额减少。
A phenomenon in which the audience for a medium is distributed across a large number of program services. Cable is said to fragment the television audience, resulting in a decreased average audience share for each channel.
受众两极分化  Audience polarization
A phenomenon associated with audience fragmentation, in which the audiences for channels or stations use them more intensively than an average audience member.
受众周转  Audience turnover
A phenomenon of audience behavior usually expressed as the ratio of a station's cumulative audience to its average quarter hour audience.
数据交叉  Cross-tabs
A technique of data analysis in which the responses to one item are paired with those of another item. Cross, tabs are useful in determining the audience duplication between two programs.
时段  Daypart
A period of time, usually defined by certain hours of the day and days of the week (e.g., weekdays vs. weekends), used to estimate audience size for the purpose of buying and selling advertising time. Dayparts can also be defined by program content (e.g., news, sports).
收音机个人开机率  PUR (Persons Using Radio)
A term describing the total size of the radio audience at any point.
随机拨号  Random Digit Dialing (RDD)
In telephone surveys, a technique for creating a probability sample by randomly generating telephone numbers. By using this method, all numbers (including unlisted) have an equal chance of being called.
视听率  Rating
In its simplest form, the percentage of persons or households tuned to a station, program, or daypart out of the total market population.
使用的收音/电视机  Sets-in-use
The number of sets turned on at a given point. As a measure of audience size, it has become outdated since most households now have multiple sets.
收听时间  TSL (Time Spent Listening)
A cumulative measure of the average amount of time an audience spends listening to a station within a daypart. 
推及的受众  Projected audience
The size of an audience estimated to exist in the population, based on sample information.
晚间边缘时段(黄金时段最末的时段)  Late fringe
In television, a daypart just after the late local news(11pm EST).
网下节目  Off-network Programs
Programs originally produced to air on a major broadcast network, now being sold in syndication.
未经加权的样本  Unweighted in-tab
The actual number of individuals in different demographic groups who have returned usable information to the ratings company.
无线网络  Unwired networks
Organizations that acquire commercial time (usually in similar types of programming) from stations around the country and package that time for sale to advertisers.
循环  Circulation
The total number of unduplicated audience members exposed to a media vehicle (e.g. newspaper station) over some specified period.
相关性  Correlation
A statistic that measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. It may range in value from +1.O to-1.0, with O indicating no relationship.
系统抽样  Systematic sample
A kind of probability sample in which a set interval is applied to a list often population to identity elements included in the sample (e.g., picking every 10th name).
有线电视系统  Cable system
A video distribution system that uses coaxial cable and optical fiber to deliver multichannel service to households within a geographically defined franchise area.
有线电视渗透  Cable penetration
The extent to which households in a given market subscribe to cable service. Typically expressed as the percent of all TV households that subscribe to basic cable.
有效暴露  Effective exposure
A concept in media planning stipulating that a certain amount of exposure to an advertising message is necessary before it is effective. Often used interchangeably with the term effective frequency.
有效样本量  ESS (Effective Sample Size)
The size of a simple random sample needed to produce the same result as the sample actually used by the rating company. ESS is a convenience used for calculating confidence intervals. Also called effective sample base, or ESB.
沿袭效应  Inheritance effect
A common phenomenon of television audience behavior in which the audience for one program is disproportionately represented in the audience of the following program. Sometimes called lead-in effects, audience inheritance can be thought of as a special case of channel loyalty.
预先占有  Preempt
An action, taken by an affiliate, in which programming fed by a network is replaced with programming scheduled by the station. Certain types of commercial time can also be preempted by advertisers willing to pay a premium for the spot.
样本  Sample
A subset of some population.
样本加权  Sample weighting
The practice of assigning different mathematical weights to various subsets of the in-tab sample in an effort to correct for different response rates among those subsets. Each weight is the ratio of the subset's size in the population to its size in the sample.
溢出  Spill
The extent to which nonmarket stations are viewed by local audiences, or local stations are viewed by audiences outside the market.
置信度  Confidence level
In probability sampling, a statement of the likelihood that a range of values (i.e. confidence interval) will include the true population value.
总暴露频次  Gross impressions
The number of times an advertising schedule is seen over time. The number of gross impressions may exceed the size of the population since audience members may be duplicated.
总视听率点  GRP (Gross Rating Point)
The gross impressions of an advertising schedule expressed as a percentage of the population. GRPs are commonly used to describe the size or media weight of an advertising campaign. GRPs=Reach ×Frequency.
最低报告标准(MRS)  Minimum reporting standard
The number of listening or viewing mentions necessary for a station or program to be included in a ratings report.
窄播  Narrowcasting
A programming strategy in which a station or network schedules content of the same type or appealing to the same subset of the audience.
重复收视  Repeat viewing
A study repeating the procedures of an early study to assess the stability of results. In audience measurement, replications involve drawing subsamples from a parent sample to assess sampling err
总体受众  Total audience
All those who tune to a program for at least 5 minutes. Essentially, it is the cumulative audience for a long program or miniseries.